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Ramdhari Singh Dinkar

Sunday, 01 February 2009 02:44 Kislay Komal
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Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'  (September 23, 1908 – April 24, 1974) was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academician, who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. Dinkar emerged as a rebellious poet with his nationalist poetry in pre-Independence days. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi ("National poet") evoking the spirit of nationalism on account of his inspiring patriotic composition.As a mark of respect for him, his portrait was unveiled in the Central Hall of Parliament of India by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh on his centenary year, 2008.

Dinkar initially supported the revolutionary movement during the Indian Independence struggle, but later became a Gandhian. However, he used to call himself a 'Bad Gandhian' because he supported the feelings of indignation and revenge among the youth. In Kurukshetra, he accepts that the war is destructive, but says that it is necessary for the protection of freedom.

Dinkar was three times elected to Rajya Sabha, and he was the member of this house from April 3, 1952 CE to January 26, 1964 CE, and was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1959.

During The Emergency, Jayaprakash Narayan had attracted a gathering of one lakh people at the Ramlila Grounds and thunderously recited Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar's wonderfully evocative poetry: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai.


Dinkar was born in a poor Bhumihar Brahmin[7] family in Simariya village of Begusarai district in Bihar. As a student, Dinkar's favorite subjects were history, politics and philosophy. He studied Hindi, Sanskrit, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and English literature. Dinkar was greatly influenced by Iqbal, Rabindranath Tagore, Keats and Milton. He had even translated works of Rabindranath Tagore from Bangla to Hindi. Shri Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', called the "Rashtrakavi" evoked the spirit of nationalism on account of his inspiring patriotic composition.A philosopher-poet, Shri Dinkar rose upon the Hindi literary scene like the proverbial 'Sun'.


His works are mostly of 'Veer Rasa', or the 'brave mode'. Urvashi, of course, is an exception. Some of his greatest works are Rashmirathi and Parashuram ki Prateeksha. He is hailed as the greatest Hindi poet of 'Veer Rasa' since Bhushan.

Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi wrote that he was very popular among people whose mother-tongue was not Hindi and he was a symbol of love for ones own mother-tongue. Harivansh Rai Bachchan wrote that for his proper respect he should get four Jnanpith Awards - for poetry, prose, languages and for his service to Hindi. Rambriksh Benipuri wrote that Dinkar is giving voice to the revolutionary movement in the country. Namvar Singh wrote that he was really the sun of his age.

Hindi writer Rajendra Yadav, whose novel 'Sara Akash' also carried a few lines of Dinkar's poetry, has said of him He was always very inspiring to read. His poetry was about reawakening. He often delved into Hindu mythology and referred to heroes of epics such as Karna.He was a poet of anti-imperialism and nationalism, says well-known Hindi writer Kashinath Singh.

He also wrote social and political satires aimed at socio-economic inequalities and exploitation of the underprivileged.

A progressive and humanist poet, he chose to approach history and reality directly and his verse combined oratorical vigour with a declamatory diction. The theme of Urvashi revolves round love, passion, and relationship of man and woman on a spiritual plane, distinct from their earthly relationship. The name Urvashi is derived from the name of an Apsaras of the same name (Urvashi), a celestial damsel of the court of Hindu mythological god, Indra.

His Kurukshetra is a narrative poem based on the Santi Parva of the Mahabharata.It was written at a time when the memories of the Second World War were fresh on the mind of the poet.His Samdheni is a collection of poems reflecting the poet's social concern transcending the boundaries of the nation.

In his Sanskiti ke Chaar Adhyay he said that despite various cultures, languages and topography, India stands united, because however different we may be, our thoughts are one and the same.

Awards and honours

He got awards from Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha, Uttar Pradesh Government and Government of India for his epic-poem Kurukshetra. He got the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1959 for his work Sanskriti ke Char Adhyay. He was also a recipient of Padma Bhushan in 1959 by the Government of India given by the first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad. He got the felicitation of Doctor of literature from Dr. Zakir Hussain, Chancellor of Bhagalpur University (who later became the President of India, then he was the Governor of Bihar). He got anointed as Vidyavachaspati by Gurukul Mahavidyalaya. He was felicitated as Sahitya-Chudamaniby Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur on 8 November, 1968. Dinkar was awarded the Jnanpith Award in 1972 for Urvashi, a work of poetry, published in 1961. He also became a nominated member of the Rajya Sabha, in 1952.

Posthumous Recognitions

On September 30, 1987, to mark his 79th birth anniversary tributes were paid to him by the then President of India, Shankar Dayal Sharma.

In 1999, Dinkar was one of the Hindi writers used in a set of commemorative postal stamps released by Government of India to celebrate the "Linguistic Harmony of India." marking the 50th anniversary since the Indian Union adopted Hindi as its official language.

As a tribute to the great patriotic poet Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinakar’, the Cabinet Minister of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Shri Priya Ranjan Dasmunsi released a book on his birth centenary titled, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinakar’: Vyaktitva aur Krititva.The book is written by well known critic and writer Khagendra Thakur and published by Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.

Rich tributes were paid to him on the occasion of his 100th birth anniversary in Patna on 23rd September, 2008 and Bihar's Chief Minister, Nitish Kumar unveiled his statue at the Dinkar Chowk and offered floral tributes to the late poet.

A two-day national seminar was organised in Calicut University in connection with the birth centenary of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar.

Major poetic works

Dinkar's first published poetical work was Vijay Sandesh (1928). His other works are

Pranbhang (1929)
Renuka (1935)
Hunkar (epic poem) (1938)
Rasavanti (1939)
Dvandvageet (1940)
Kurukshetra (1946)
Dhoop Chhah (1946)
Saamdheni (1947)
Baapu (1947)
Itihas ke Aansoo (1951)
Dhup aur Dhuan (1951)
Mirch ka Mazaa (1951)
Rashmirathi (1952)
Dilli (1954)
Neem ke Patte (1954)
Suraj ka Byaah (1955)
Neel Kusum (1954)
Chakravaal (1956)
Kavishri (1957)
Seepee aur Shankh (1957)
Naye Subhaashit (1957)
Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Urvashi (1961)
Parashuram ki Pratiksha (1963)
Koylaa aur Kavitva (1964)
Mritti Tilak (1964)
Atmaa ki Ankhe (1964)
Haare ko Harinaam (1970)

Poetic Anthologies

Lokpriya Kavi Dinkar (1960)
Dinkar ki Suktiyan (1964)
Dinkar ke Geet (1973)
Sanchayita (1973)
Rashmilok (1974)
Urvashi tatha anya shringarik kavitayen (1974)
Amrit Manthan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Bhagn Vina, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Sapnon ka Dhuan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Samanantar, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Rashmimala, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.

Major prose works

Dinkar’s major analytical and other prose works are:

Mitti ki Or (1946)
Chittaur ka Saakaa (1948)
Ardhanaarishwar (1952)
Reti ki Phool (1954)
Hamaari Saanskritik Ekta (1954)
Bhaarat ki Saanskritik Kahaani (1955)
Raashtrabhaasha aur Raashtriya Ekta (1955)
Ujli Aag (1956)
Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyaay (1956)
Kaavya ki Bhumikaa (1958)
Pant, Prasad aur Maithilisharan (1958)
Venu Van (1958)
Dharma, Naitikataa aur Vigyan (1959)
Vat-Peepal (1961)
Lokdev Nehru (1965)
Shuddh Kavitaa ki Khoj (1966)
Saahityamukhi (1968)
He Ram! (1968)
Samsmaran aur Shraddhaanjaliyan (1970)
Meri Yatrayen (1971)
Bhaaratiya Ekta (1971)
Dinkar ki Daayri (1973)
Chetana ki Shilaa (1973)
Vivah ki Musibaten (1973) and
Aadhunik Bodh (1973).

Literary Criticism

Sahitya aur Samaj, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Chintan ke Aayam, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Kavi aur Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Sanskriti Bhasha aur Rashtra, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Kavita aur Shuddh Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.


Sri Aurobindo: Meri Drishti Mein, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Pandit Nehru aur anya mahapurush, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Smarnanjali, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.


Source of this article : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramdhari_Singh_'Dinkar'

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